By William Lesser
Following the united states Patent Office's assertion in 1987 that it considers animals "to be patentable material in the scope" of patent legislation, there was enormous around the globe debate in this topic. This paintings includes the lawsuits of the Animal Patents Symposium held at Cornell collage, united states, on December 5-6, 1988, geared up via the editor of this paintings.
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Extra resources for Animal Patents: The Legal, Economic and Social Issues
Technical in character) (Beier and Straus, 1986: p. 456; Teschemacher, 1987: p. 95; von Pechmann, 1987: p. 348). When, in a process for the production of animals, biological as well as technical elements are present, then, as Teschemacher has correctly pointed out, one has to find out where the core of the invention lies. In other words, it has to be determined whether the human intervention plays only a supporting or a determining role in the invention. If the product could not have been created naturally, the human intervention was decisive.
EPO Off. , 8: 308. 1. Decision of July 26, 1983. EPO Off. , 3: 112. Enlarged EPO Board of Appeal (1985) Decision of December 5, 1984. 38 Congressional Perspectives Kevin W. O'Connor INTRODUCTION Legal, economic, ethical, and social issues relating to animal patents were the subject of hearings and legislation during the 100th US Congress. The purpose of this paper is to explain why Congress is interested in the topic of animal patents, to highlight the legislative activities of the 100th Congress related to this issue and to describe the role of the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) in advising Congress on issues raised by animal patents.
Horstgen-Schwark, and E. L. Winnacker (1988) Gene Transfer in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Aquaculture, 68: 209 et seq. Clark, A. , J. P. Simons, I. Wilmut, and R. Lathe (1987) Pharmaceuticals from Transgenic Livestock. Trends Biotec, 5: 20 et seq. Clark, R. W. (1985) The Life of Ernst Chain: Penicillin and Beyond. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, p. 56. Commission of the European Communities (1988) Proposal for a Council Directive on the Legal Protection of Biotechnological Inventions. COM (88) 496 final-SYN 159, Brussels, Oct.