By I M Kolthoff
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Cf. also H. ECKWEILLER, H. M. NOTES, and K. G. FALK; 2 P. A. LEVENE and H. S. SIMMS 3 for methods of determining the isoelectric point, see L. MICHAELIS/ S. P. L. ), and W. R. ATKIN. 4 ) ; If the substance contains m acid groups and n basic groups, then according to Levene and Simms: " -\ l 3 Kai \ 1 2 ed. Julius Springer, L. Michaelis: Die Wasserstoffionenkonzentration. Berlin, 1922. 2 H. Eckweiller, H. M. Noyes, and K. G. Falk: J. Gen. , S, 291 (1921). 8 P. A. Levene and H. S. Simms: J. Biol.
In spite of the various obvious objections to the ARRHENIUS theory, it remained the basis for the electrochemistry of solutions until 1923, simply because no better theory had replaced it. At the end of the preceding century a number of authors, among them 0. JAHN, 1 had demonstrated indeed that the theory did not represent the facts in a satisfactory manner. As early as 1894, 2 J. J. VAN LAAR had begun to lead the way to the modern theory stating that the extremely strong electrostatic fields surrounding ions certainly must exert a profound influence on the dis- by sociation processes.
The error becomes smaller, the smaller K* and K a are the example of phenylalanine). 1 J. 8 S. P. L. Walker and Aston: J. Chem. , 67, 576 (1895). Sorensen and Coworkers: Compt. rend. trav. lab. Carlsberg, 12 (1917) AMPHOTERIC SUBSTANCES 35 K 5 a is more than 10 times greater very small and rJian Kb, so that J*>[A] <3C w <5C [A], the ampholyte behaves a monobasic acid. as Conversely, the ampholyte may practically be regarded as a monoacid base when Kb exceeds a to the same (c) If c is X K K extent.