By Lois N. Magner
Stressing significant issues within the historical past of drugs, this moment version explores the occasions, methodologies, and theories that formed clinical practices in many years prior and in sleek medical perform. It highlights practices of civilizations worldwide and study of pioneering scientists and physicians who contributed to our present figuring out of overall healthiness and disorder. New sections conceal preventive and substitute drugs, scientific schooling for girls, miasma and contagion theories, the specter of epidemic illness, altering styles of morbidity and mortality, public well-being and sanitary reforms, the excessive fee of remedy, ailments of affluence and getting older, and the emergence of latest ailments.
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Additional resources for A History of Medicine, Second Edition
Unfortunately, putting bodies in relatively cool, damp, underground tombs allowed the forces of putrefaction to prevail. If the pharaoh were to enjoy both an elegant resting place and a well-preserved body, new methods of preparing the corpse for eternal life were essential. Chapter 2. Medicine in Ancient Civilizations 35 Much has been made of the ‘‘mysteries’’ of Egyptian mummiﬁcation, but the basic steps were simple: removing the viscera, thoroughly drying the cadaver, and wrapping the desiccated corpse.
Although mummiﬁed bodies have been found in many parts of the world, for most people the term ‘‘mummy’’ conjures up the Egyptian mummy, as seen in museums and late-night horror shows. The term comes from a Persian word for bitumen (natural asphalt), reﬂecting the mistaken notion that ancient Egyptian bodies had been preserved and blackened by soaking in pitch. For the ancient Egyptians, life after death was of paramount importance, but success in the afterlife depended on preservation of the body so that the soul would have a suitable place to dwell.
Chapter 1. Paleopathology and Paleomedicine 17 the world. In societies where magical and scientiﬁc beliefs coexist, one cannot predict which will be stronger or more inﬂuential. ’’ Magic plays an important role in many cultures; it provides answers to questions that cannot be answered by existing logical or rational knowledge. Magic may be so closely related to religion that it is difﬁcult to deﬁne the borderline between them. The primary difference between a prayer and a spell is the assumption that magical practices, correctly performed, must bring about the desired reaction.